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Finally, if the manuscript contains long quotations from a published work that is still under copyright , the copy editor should remind the author to acquire permission to reprint those quotations.

The same goes for the reprinting of tables, charts, graphs, and illustrations that have appeared in print. Rules vary for the reproduction of unpublished materials letters, diaries, etc.

There are basic procedures that every copy editor must follow: copy editors need a system for marking changes to the author’s text marking , a process for querying the author and the editorial coordinator querying , a method for keeping track of editorial decisions recordkeeping , and procedures for incorporating the author’s review of the copyediting into a final document cleanup. These systems were originally developed in an era before that of the computer, but over time these procedures were adapted for a digital on-screen space.

Each medium in print and on screen has its own affordances, and although a copy editor may prefer one editing process over the other, copy editors are practically required to use both techniques.

Traditional markup copyediting, or hard-copy editing, is still important because screening tests for employment may be administered in hard copy. Also, the author whose text the copy editor is editing may prefer hard-copy markup, and copy editors need to know traditional markup in case documents and materials cannot be exchanged electronically.

When editing in hard copy, all participating parties the editor, author, typesetter, and proofreader must understand the marks the copy editor makes, and therefore a universal marking system that signifies these changes exists. This is also why the copy editor should write legibly and neatly.

Copy editors working hard copy write their corrections in the text directly, leaving the margins for querying. Usually, the copy editor is asked to write in a bright color so that the author and other parties can easily recognize the editor’s changes. Every year, more editing projects are being done on computers and fewer in print. Also, if there is a digital version of a text the copy editor is editing, they can more easily search words, run spell checkers , and generate clean copies of messy pages.

The first thing copy editors must do when editing on screen is to copy the author’s files, as the original document must be preserved. On-screen editing mainly differs from hard-copy editing in the fact that the copy editor should edit more cleanly on screen, refraining from saving parts of words, and be careful in maintaining proper line spacing. Copy editors often need to query their authors in order to address questions, comments, or explanations: most of these can be done in the margins of the text, or the comment section when on screen.

A copy editor’s goals may change depending on the publication for which they work; however, there are a few constituencies which must always be served — the author the person who wrote or compiled the manuscript , the publisher the person or company which pays for production , and the readers the audience for whom the material is being produced. These parties together with the copy editor work to achieve the same goal, which is to produce an error-free publication and improve the reader experience, by reducing extraneous cognitive load.

The biggest difference between monastic copyists and copyeditors is that copyeditors leave edits as suggestions that can be rejected by the writer. These printing houses established procedures for editing, preparing the text, and proofreading.

Specialist correctors ensured that texts followed the standards of the time. Before the printing press, monastic copyists altered words or phrases they thought were odd, under the assumption that the copyist before them had made a mistake. This is what led to so much variety in standard texts like the Bible. After the globalization of the book from to came the rise of American writers and editors. One editor in particular, Maxwell Perkins, was sought out by writers such as Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and Wolfe because he greatly improved the work of these prominent authors with his editorial eye.

Perkins was known for editing, guiding, and befriending his writers — but the times were changing. In the late 19th century, the role of an editor was to decide if a manuscript was good enough to be published. As time passed, the role of an editor and publisher became more distant. Although there was a newfound relationship between editors and authors, thoughtful editing did not end. Copyeditors were employed at various publishing houses, magazines, journals, and by private authors seeking revisions to their work.

Some copyeditors were even employed by public relations and advertising firms who valued strong editing practices in their business. The symbols used by copyeditors today are based on those that have been used by proofreaders since the beginnings of publishing, though they have undergone some changes over time.

However, the exact beginnings of the copyediting language used today are unclear. Despite its long history, copyediting as a practice has not experienced any extreme upheaval other than the desktop publishing revolution of the s.

This phenomenon began as the result of a series of inventions that were released during the middle of this decade, and refers to the growth of technology usage in the field of copyediting. There were a few events that led to changes within copyediting as a career. One of these, the successful strike of the editorial department of the Newark Ledger from November 17, , to March 28, , was “the first major action of its kind by any local guild At the conclusion of the second Macaulay strike, which occurred three months after the first, the nationwide drive towards unionization had entered the publishing industry and was “sweeping through all the major publishing houses”.

Owing to the rise of the Digital Age , the roles and responsibilities of a copyeditor have changed. For instance, beginning in , copyeditors learned pagination electronically. This technological advance also required that copyeditors learn new software such as Pagemaker, Quark Xpress , and now Adobe InDesign. Modern copyeditors are often required to edit for digital as well as print versions of the text.

Editors of the website BuzzFeed commented that sometimes they “simply can’t get every post before it’s published”. Some copyeditors now have to design page layouts and some even edit video content.

Traditionally, the copy editor would read a printed or written manuscript, manually marking it with editor’s “correction marks”. Chief copy editors are still sometimes called “the slot”. The nearly universal adoption of computerized systems for editing and layout in newspapers and magazines has also led copy editors to become more involved in the design and the technicalities of production. Technical knowledge is therefore sometimes considered as important as writing ability, though this is truer in journalism than it is in book publishing.

Hank Glamann, the co-founder of the American Copy Editors Society , made the following observation about ads for copy editor positions at American newspapers:. We want them to be skilled grammarians and wordsmiths and write bright and engaging headlines and must know Quark. But, often, when push comes to shove, we will let every single one of those requirements slide except the last one because you have to know that in order to push the button at the appointed time.

Besides an outstanding command of the language, copy editors need broad general knowledge for spotting factual errors; good critical thinking skills in order to recognize inconsistencies or vagueness; interpersonal skills for dealing with writers, other editors, and designers; attention to detail; and a sense of style. They must also set priorities and balance a desire for perfection with the need to meet deadlines.

Many copy editors have a college degree, often in journalism, communications, or the language of the writing that they edit. In the United States, copy editing is often taught as a college journalism course, though its name varies. The courses often include news design and pagination. Most US newspapers and publishers give copy-editing job candidates an editing test or a tryout. These vary widely and can include general items such as acronyms, current events, math, punctuation, and skills such as the use of Associated Press style , headline writing, infographics editing, and journalism ethics.

There are no official bodies offering a recognized proof-reading qualification in either the US or the UK. Before the digital era, copy editors would mark errors and inconsistencies with a red pen, using a markup language of symbols which were universally known. The traditional copy editor was once defined as editing for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other mechanics of style.

Copy-editing symbols cannot be used in digital editing because they are not supported on digital platforms such as track changes. With more posting online and less printing on paper, hard-copy can no longer keep pace with digital publishing.

The position of copy editors is at risk because time demands quicker results which can be automated by software that catches grammatical errors. Professionals feared that the introduction of digital editing software would end copyediting careers. Copy editors are still employed and needed for heavy edits, such as fact-checking and content organization, which are beyond the abilities of the software.

With grammar software and journalists who can edit, copy editors are seen as a luxury in publishing. Though the steps for copyediting are the same, the execution has been adapted for digital environments. The technological development of cloud storage allows contemporary copy editors and writers to upload and share files across multiple devices. Each processor has its advantages and disadvantages based on the users’ preferences, but primarily allows users to share, edit and collaborate on documents.

In Microsoft Word, users can choose whether to show or hide changes by clicking track changes under the Review ribbon. The field of copy editing is not obsolete.

Teresa Schmedding, president of the American Copy Editors Society ACES and a deputy managing editor at the Daily Herald in Chicago, thinks that copy editors are “a natural fit” for digital journalism and social media because, though publishing has been made available to almost anyone, quality and credibility is brought to content only by copy editors.

Copy editors must now consider multimedia aspects of the story, such as video, images, audio, and search engine optimization , which may be included in digital publications. One of the problems with copy-editing is that it may slow the publication of the text. With the digital publishing era came an increased demand for a fast turnover of information. Additional details such as color printing, page size, and layout are determined by the allotted budget.

Therefore copy chief Emmy Favila says lower-priority posts are published without copyedits at Buzzfeed. In response to such high demands for fast-produced content, some online publications have started publishing articles first and then editing later, a process known as back-editing.

Editors prioritize stories to edit based on traffic and whether the content was originally reported for needing edits.

Reading material has become increasingly accessible to users with a wide range of disabilities. Carolyn Rude exemplifies such cases in alternatively replacing illustrations with text and audio translations for the visually impaired. As online resources rise in popularity, copy editors endeavor to meet the increase of digital consumerism to the best of their abilities, and such high competition has resulted in a gradually “declining of quality in editing”, such as copy editing or fact-checking.

One of the most important advancements of the digital age is the advent of pagination, which gives copy editors more control over the construction and revisions of their content. Pagination is a convenient feature in programs such as “Pagemaker, the Quark Xpress, and AdobeIndesign”. Other copy editors think that the Internet has simplified fact-checking and that websites such as Facebook or Twitter have aided information-gathering. Other digital skills, such as image selection and search engine optimization, increase the visibility of search results, especially when searching for keywords in headlines.

In all likelihood, the Internet will continue to evolve, but this shouldn’t hamper the overall importance of copy editing. Although it may be tempting to neglect proper revisions in favor of convenience, the credibility and quality of an editor’s work should still be maintained, as there will always be updates in software and technology.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Work that an editor does to improve the formatting, style, and accuracy of text. For the Wikipedia guide, see Wikipedia:Copy editing. ACES: The Society for Editing — Professional organization for copy editors Robinson Prize — Annual award for excellence in copy editing Author editing — Editing an author’s draft in preparation for its submission to publishers Headline — First element of a newspaper story List of American copy editors News design — Process of arranging material on a newspaper page Photo caption — A few lines of text used to explain and elaborate on published photographs Proofreading — Process by which transcription errors in a written or printed material are detected and removed Style guide — Set of standards for the writing and design of documents AP Stylebook — Book on English usage by Associated Press The Chicago Manual of Style — Academic style guide by University of Chicago Press.

Retrieved March 25, The Fine Art of Copyediting. Columbia University Press. Creating original content to be published under another person’s name is called ghostwriting. Furthermore, copy editors are expected to query structural and organizational problems, but they are not expected to fix these problems. In addition, copy editors do not normally engage in developmental editing , which includes helping an author develop an idea into a publishable manuscript, overhauling a rough draft, identifying gaps in subject coverage, devising strategies for more-effective communication of content, and creating features to enhance the final product and make it more competitive in the marketplace.

In the United States and Canada, an editor who does this work is called a copy editor. An organization’s highest-ranking copy editor, or the supervising editor of a group of copy editors, may be known as the copy chief , copy desk chief , or news editor. In the United Kingdom, the term copy editor is used, but in newspaper and magazine publishing, the term is subeditor or sub-editor , commonly shortened to sub.

Similar to print, online copy editing is the process of revising and preparing the raw or draft text of web pages for publication.

Copy editing has three levels: light, medium, and heavy. Depending on the budget and scheduling of the publication, the publisher will let the copy editor know what level of editing to employ. The chosen type of editing will help the copy editor prioritize their efforts. Within copy editing, there is mechanical editing and substantive editing. Mechanical editing is the process of aligning a document with editorial or house style, keeping the preferred style and grammar rules of publication consistent across all content.

Content editing , also known as substantive editing, is the editing of the material, including its structure and organization, to ensure internal consistency. Mechanical editing is the process of proofreading a piece of writing for consistency, either internally or in accordance with the publisher’s house style.

According to Einsohn, mechanical editors work with such things as the following: [7]. Gilad also mentions the following: [8] [ need quotation to verify ]. Proper spelling and punctuation are subjective in some cases, where they must be left to the discretion of the copy editor or the publisher.

Companies that produce documents and reports but do not consider themselves publishers in the usual sense tend to rely on in-house style guides or on the judgment of the copyeditor. The goal of the copy editor is to enforce inviolable rules while respecting personal stylistic preferences.

This can be difficult, as some writers view grammatical corrections as a challenge to their intellectual ability or professional identity. Therefore, copy editors are encouraged to respect the author’s preference if it is acceptable. This practice is complicated further by volatile language conventions as recorded by books on grammar and usage, the authors of which often disagree. Content editing consists of reorganizing or restructuring a document.

This involves any inconsistent parts of the content as well as any variances. Content editors can fix the content by either rewriting it or heavily editing it. However, the copy editor will often point out any difficult passages for the author to resolve on his or her own time. Such fact-checking is acceptable for copy editors who know the document’s subject matter.

The copy editor must also point out any biased language without infringing on the author’s meaning. This includes material “that might form the basis for a lawsuit alleging libel, invasion of privacy, or obscenity”.

Some see censoring biased language as political correctness , so it is important that the copy editor distinguish between the two. Most manuscripts will require the copy editor to correlate the parts within it. Some manuscripts may require special cross-checking. For example, in a how-to text, a copy editor might need to verify that the list of equipment or parts matches the instructions given within the text.

Typecoding is the process of identifying which sections of the manuscript are not regular running text. It is the copy editor’s job to typecode or make note of all manuscript elements for the publication designer. On-screen copy editors may be asked to insert typecodes at the beginning and end of each element. Finally, if the manuscript contains long quotations from a published work that is still under copyright , the copy editor should remind the author to acquire permission to reprint those quotations.

The same goes for the reprinting of tables, charts, graphs, and illustrations that have appeared in print. Rules vary for the reproduction of unpublished materials letters, diaries, etc.

There are basic procedures that every copy editor must follow: copy editors need a system for marking changes to the author’s text marking , a process for querying the author and the editorial coordinator querying , a method for keeping track of editorial decisions recordkeeping , and procedures for incorporating the author’s review of the copyediting into a final document cleanup. These systems were originally developed in an era before that of the computer, but over time these procedures were adapted for a digital on-screen space.

Each medium in print and on screen has its own affordances, and although a copy editor may prefer one editing process over the other, copy editors are practically required to use both techniques. Traditional markup copyediting, or hard-copy editing, is still important because screening tests for employment may be administered in hard copy. Also, the author whose text the copy editor is editing may prefer hard-copy markup, and copy editors need to know traditional markup in case documents and materials cannot be exchanged electronically.

When editing in hard copy, all participating parties the editor, author, typesetter, and proofreader must understand the marks the copy editor makes, and therefore a universal marking system that signifies these changes exists. This is also why the copy editor should write legibly and neatly. Copy editors working hard copy write their corrections in the text directly, leaving the margins for querying. Usually, the copy editor is asked to write in a bright color so that the author and other parties can easily recognize the editor’s changes.

Every year, more editing projects are being done on computers and fewer in print. Also, if there is a digital version of a text the copy editor is editing, they can more easily search words, run spell checkers , and generate clean copies of messy pages. The first thing copy editors must do when editing on screen is to copy the author’s files, as the original document must be preserved.

On-screen editing mainly differs from hard-copy editing in the fact that the copy editor should edit more cleanly on screen, refraining from saving parts of words, and be careful in maintaining proper line spacing. Copy editors often need to query their authors in order to address questions, comments, or explanations: most of these can be done in the margins of the text, or the comment section when on screen.

A copy editor’s goals may change depending on the publication for which they work; however, there are a few constituencies which must always be served — the author the person who wrote or compiled the manuscript , the publisher the person or company which pays for production , and the readers the audience for whom the material is being produced. These parties together with the copy editor work to achieve the same goal, which is to produce an error-free publication and improve the reader experience, by reducing extraneous cognitive load.

The biggest difference between monastic copyists and copyeditors is that copyeditors leave edits as suggestions that can be rejected by the writer.

These printing houses established procedures for editing, preparing the text, and proofreading. Specialist correctors ensured that texts followed the standards of the time. Before the printing press, monastic copyists altered words or phrases they thought were odd, under the assumption that the copyist before them had made a mistake. This is what led to so much variety in standard texts like the Bible. After the globalization of the book from to came the rise of American writers and editors.

One editor in particular, Maxwell Perkins, was sought out by writers such as Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and Wolfe because he greatly improved the work of these prominent authors with his editorial eye. Perkins was known for editing, guiding, and befriending his writers — but the times were changing. In the late 19th century, the role of an editor was to decide if a manuscript was good enough to be published.

As time passed, the role of an editor and publisher became more distant. Although there was a newfound relationship between editors and authors, thoughtful editing did not end.

Copyeditors were employed at various publishing houses, magazines, journals, and by private authors seeking revisions to their work. Some copyeditors were even employed by public relations and advertising firms who valued strong editing practices in their business. The symbols used by copyeditors today are based on those that have been used by proofreaders since the beginnings of publishing, though they have undergone some changes over time.

However, the exact beginnings of the copyediting language used today are unclear. Despite its long history, copyediting as a practice has not experienced any extreme upheaval other than the desktop publishing revolution of the s.

This phenomenon began as the result of a series of inventions that were released during the middle of this decade, and refers to the growth of technology usage in the field of copyediting. There were a few events that led to changes within copyediting as a career. One of these, the successful strike of the editorial department of the Newark Ledger from November 17, , to March 28, , was “the first major action of its kind by any local guild At the conclusion of the second Macaulay strike, which occurred three months after the first, the nationwide drive towards unionization had entered the publishing industry and was “sweeping through all the major publishing houses”.

Owing to the rise of the Digital Age , the roles and responsibilities of a copyeditor have changed. For instance, beginning in , copyeditors learned pagination electronically. This technological advance also required that copyeditors learn new software such as Pagemaker, Quark Xpress , and now Adobe InDesign.

Modern copyeditors are often required to edit for digital as well as print versions of the text. Editors of the website BuzzFeed commented that sometimes they “simply can’t get every post before it’s published”.

Some copyeditors now have to design page layouts and some even edit video content. Traditionally, the copy editor would read a printed or written manuscript, manually marking it with editor’s “correction marks”. Chief copy editors are still sometimes called “the slot”. The nearly universal adoption of computerized systems for editing and layout in newspapers and magazines has also led copy editors to become more involved in the design and the technicalities of production.

Technical knowledge is therefore sometimes considered as important as writing ability, though this is truer in journalism than it is in book publishing. Hank Glamann, the co-founder of the American Copy Editors Society , made the following observation about ads for copy editor positions at American newspapers:. We want them to be skilled grammarians and wordsmiths and write bright and engaging headlines and must know Quark. But, often, when push comes to shove, we will let every single one of those requirements slide except the last one because you have to know that in order to push the button at the appointed time.

Besides an outstanding command of the language, copy editors need broad general knowledge for spotting factual errors; good critical thinking skills in order to recognize inconsistencies or vagueness; interpersonal skills for dealing with writers, other editors, and designers; attention to detail; and a sense of style.

They must also set priorities and balance a desire for perfection with the need to meet deadlines. Many copy editors have a college degree, often in journalism, communications, or the language of the writing that they edit. In the United States, copy editing is often taught as a college journalism course, though its name varies. The courses often include news design and pagination. Most US newspapers and publishers give copy-editing job candidates an editing test or a tryout. These vary widely and can include general items such as acronyms, current events, math, punctuation, and skills such as the use of Associated Press style , headline writing, infographics editing, and journalism ethics.

There are no official bodies offering a recognized proof-reading qualification in either the US or the UK. Before the digital era, copy editors would mark errors and inconsistencies with a red pen, using a markup language of symbols which were universally known.

 
 

 

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